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A Symbiosis of

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for all Inhabitants of Planet Earth



Chauncey Starr

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This page supports a reference list, with hyperlinks and a brief description of each and in rough historical order, to key published technical papers underlying each of the technology components of the SuperGrid concept.

Garwin - Matisoo
R. L. Garwin and J. Matisoo, “Superconducting Lines for the Transmission of Large Amounts of Electrical Power over Great Distances,” Proc. IEEE 55, 538 (1967).
In my opinion, this is the watershed paper for superconducting cables, and written by two IBM scientists (one of whom became my boss)...not exactly utility engineers.  Essential reading!

Bartlit - Eduskuty - Hammel
J. R. Bartlit, F. J. Edeskuty and E. F. Hammel, “Multiple Use of Cryogenic Fluid Transmission Lines,” Proc. ICEC4, Eindhoven, 24/26 May 1972.
This prescient study from LANL explores the dual delivery of methane and/or hydrogen as energy agents in a "SuperCable" concept.  However, neither serves as a cryogen...liquid hydrogen was necessary...the discovery of high temperature superconductivity was still 13 years in the future!

Haney - Hammond
 D. E. Haney and R. Hammond, “Refrigeration and Heat Transfer in Superconducting Power Lines,” Stanford Report 275.05-75-2, April, 1975.
This report, performed under research supported by the NSF, details early work on the use of liquid hydrogen as a cryogen for a low temperature does not go into the transport of hydrogen as energy agent, however.  At present, I do not have a complete pdf copy, so this link is only to the hydrogen chapter.  I will have the full report soon...stay tuned.

Schoenung - Hassenzahl - Grant
S. M. Schoenung, W. V. Hassenzahl and P. M. Grant, “System Study of Long Distance Low Voltage Transmission Using High Temperature Superconducting Cable,” EPRI Report WO8065-12, March, 1997 (Work performed as an EPRI Exploratory Research "Public Benefit"  project).
This study was prompted by an ABB study of the relative costs of overhead HVDC compared to natural gas pipelines from Qatar to an imaginary future industrial complex located around Israel/Palestine/Egypt/Syria/Lebanon.  LVDC  cables using HTSC wire at $5/kA×m at 65 Kelvin win!  Have a look.

Grant (ASC-96)
P. M. Grant, “Superconductivity and Electric Power: Promises, Promises…Past, Present and Future,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Super. 7, 112 (1997).
A great cosmic paper (of course!) on applications of HTSC to power apps, including cables.  A little dated by now, but the principles are invariant!  And especially the references, which are classic.

Grant (2000 DOE PR)
P. M. Grant, "CryoEnCom: A Cryogenic-based Energy/Communications Delivery Concept," EPRI Poster at the 2000 DOE Peer Review (2000).
A somewhat whimsical and imaginary "greensite" community," Laguna Genome," in Durango on the Gulf of California, whose energy and communications requirements are met by a symbiosis of nuclear/hydrogen/superconductivity/DSL technologies.  The spiritual forerunner of SuperCity.

Grant (2001 DOE PR)
P. M. Grant, "CryoEnCom Revisited," EPRI Poster at the 2001 DOE Peer Review (2001).
A reprise given in August, 2001, of the 2000 Peer Review poster in the context of the discovery of superconductivity in MgB 2.  Much more attention was paid to the role of liquid hydrogen, and the figures became those used in my later TIP papers.

Grant - Sheahen
P. M. Grant and T. P. Sheahen, "Cost Projections for High Temperature Superconductors,", Applied Superconductivity Conference, Palm Springs, CA, 1998.
An engineering-economy based approach to estimating eventual cost/performance of both Generation 1 (OPIT/BSCCO/Ag) and Generation 2 coated conductor (textured YBCO) HTSC tape.  Unlike wires made from non-superconducting metals, e.g., copper, the cost/performance in $/kA×m of HTSC tapes is highly application specific and cannot be reduced to a single number.

Grant (MgB2, The Industrial Physicist)
P. M. Grant, “Will MgB2 Work?”  The Industrial Physicist, October – November, 2001, p. 22.
This article is a commentary on possible applications of the newly discovered superconductor, magnesium diboride, first announced in January, 2001.  It reveals the basic concepts of "SuperCity," a vision of a residential, light industrial complex based on nuclear power generated electricity and hydrogen delivered to the end user via a "SuperCable."  The figure on my SuperGrid home page is taken from this paper.

Grant (SuperCity, The Industrial Physicist)
P. M. Grant, “Energy for the City of the Future,” The Industrial Physicist, February – March, 2002, p. 22.
This paper elaborates and details the SuperCity concept.  Its publication engendered one of the largest number of letters-to-the-editor sent to the magazine, The Industrial Physicist, and engineering the vision became the subject of an undergraduate physics honor's course at the University of Maryland.

Starr (SuperGrid, Nuclear News)
C. Starr, "National Energy Planning for the Century: The Continental SuperGrid," Nuclear News 45, 31 (2002).
Chauncey Starr's call to construct, over the next five decades, a combined national energy generation, transmission and distribution system based on nuclear, hydrogen and superconducting technologies.

2002 SuperGrid Workshop Report
T. J. Overbye, C. Starr, P. M. Grant, and T. R. Schneider, "National Energy SuperGrid Workshop Report," 6-8 November 2002, Palo Alto, CA.
Here are the findings of the original SuperGrid workshop, concluding that the concept is technically sound, and most importantly, can be accomplished with vigorous application of present and emerging technology.

Grant (Hydrogen Lifts Off...)
P. M. Grant, “Hydrogen Lifts Off – With a Heavy Load,” Nature 424, 129 (2003).
A commentary on the Bush Administration's "Hydrogen Economy" initiative, concluding that it can only be realized with nuclear power  generated hydrogen through hydrolysis, if massive environmental damage and large scale eco-invasion is to be avoided.

Grant (The SuperCable - IEEE PCSE 2004)
P. M. Grant, "The SuperCable: Dual Delivery of Hydrogen and Electric Power," Proc. IEEE Power Eng. Soc.,
Panel Session on Future Power Delivery Options for Long-Term Energy Sustainability, 10-13 October 2004, New York, Pages 1745 - 1749, Vol. 3, Digital Object Identifier 10.1099/PSCE.2004.1397675 (
Herein are contained some scoping engineering calculations for the SuperCable design.  See also " SuperCable - The Talk."

Myers - Elkins (Undergound Nukes)
W. Myers and N. Elkins, "Siting nuclear plants underground: Old idea, new circumstances," Nuclear News 47 (13), 33 (November, 2004).
Myers and Elkins revisit some old concepts of Sakharov and Teller regarding construction of nuclear plants underground.  These two LANL workers use as an embodiment the extensive Carlsbad salt fields of Old and New Mexico.  This is a great article, but a long download, a 25 MB pdf file.  Better play Roddy McCorley while you wait.

Grant (SuperCity - Nuclear Future)
P. M. Grant, "Nuclear Energy's Contribution to the City of the Future,"  Nuclear Future, Vol. 1, No. 1, p.17 (2005).
The inaugural article for the new UK nuclear industry magazine, Nuclear Future, essentially a compendium of the TIP and Nature pieces above.  The second paper in this issue is by some guy named El Baradei.

Grant (The SuperCable - ASC)
P. M. Grant, "The SuperCable: Dual Delivery of Chemical and Electric Power," IEEE Trans. Appl. Super. 15, 1810 (2005).
This paper discusses SuperCable prospects for the delivery of chemical power in the form of either liquid hydrogen, supercritical hydrogen gas at 77 K, or as liquid methane, and defines a geometry-independent universal dimensionless scaling parameter to determine relative amounts of chemical and electric power flow.

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